Yirrkala Bark Paintings and Artists

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MAYMURU NARRITJIN OLD MASTERS 5Yirrkala Bark Paintings come from Yirrkala Mission in Eastern Arnhem land and have several characteristics. First the artwork is likely to be “framed” that is enclosed within distinct boundary lines. Within this area the surface of the bark is often completely covered with primary figures and background designs. It is almost as if the artists abhorred empty spaces. The paintings themselves tend to be finer, more formalised, more elegant and more static than the Milingimbi  / central arnhem land region.

I Buy Yirrkala Bark Paintings and if you have one to sell I would love to see it. If you have an Yirrkala Painting and just want to know what it is worth please feel free to send me a jpeg.

 

MAYMURA NARRITJIN Many of the background clan designs found in Yirrkala bark Painting designs were derived from patterns of Batik cloth brought by the Makasan traders long before the arrival of white Australians. Crosshatching is common both as a background design and to fill in figures as are lines dots and stippling. The designs are often laid on in fine lines that resemble embroidery. Yirrkala Painting are sometimes made up of several panels, each depicting a different incident or figure. Some of the largest barks come from this region, including rare book barks. Book barks are a series of barks, where each bark serves as a chapter of a legend or myth.

 

Yirrkala painters tend to have the finest cross hatching and it is often the design of the detailed crosshatching that will indicate which artist produced the work. The themes of the painting relate to myths and as these myths are clan related this can also help in determining the artist.

Yirrkala Bark painting Artists Yirrkala sculpture artists include:

Birrikidji Gumana

Mithinari Gurruwiwi

Mathaman Marika

Wandjuk Marika

Gawirrin Gumana

Munggurrawuy Yunupingu

Mithinari Gurruwiwi

Mawalan Marika

The Yirrkala Region reaches from the Woolen River to the Gulf of Carpenteria and South to Roper River. It includes both Echo island and the English Company Islands. The area, though it encompasses groups from Blue Mud Bay to the Roper River is largely home to the Murngin or Wulamba, people. Patrilineal clans are the basis of local social organisation. Yirrkala was founded in 1934 as a mission of the Methodist church. White beaches and rocky bluffs alternate on the shoreline. The interior contains stretches of open savanah which flood in the wet season. In the past the coast was regularly visited by Makasan traders who influenced both mythology and art.

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Aboriginal X Ray Art

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Aboriginal X Ray Art Bark Painting

The style of Aboriginal X Ray Art bark painting stems directly from a long history of rock painting. This article describes the features and designs found in Aboriginal X Ray Art and provides links to 32 major Aboriginal X Ray Art Painting Artists.

Commonly the background of a bark painting from Aboriginal X Ray Art has been covered by a reddish Ochre that has been rubbed in. Sometimes the scrapped surface may be left the colour it assumed when it was scorched and straightened over a fire. Bark painting from this region were originally done inside shelters made of bark during the wet season or as rock painting.

 

 

 

 I Buy Aboriginal X Ray Art bark painting and if you have one to sell I would love to see it. If you have a bark painting and just want to know what it is worth please feel free to send me a jpeg.

Oenpelli Bark PaintingThe design typically consists of a single figure or a group of figures. The design is boldly outlined in white and stands out clearly from the background. The figures on a bark Painting can be some of the most dynamic and visually intriguing found in Aboriginal Art.

Though there is very little of background detail, the design is often filled in with crosshatching. These figures are distinguished by their roundness and quality of movement. This x-ray style of art is a way Aboriginal Art represent the whole spiritual being on a 2 dimensional surface and not just the beings surface. In some old rock painting it is believed the spirit itself came to rest on the rock and left the depiction of its image.

Representations of attenuated matchstick figures called Mimi spirits are also found primarily in aboriginal art from Oenpelli.

Aboriginal X Ray Art Bark Painting Aboriginal Artists include:

Aboriginal X Ray ArtJimmy Midjaw Midjaw  Mick Kubarkku

Lofty Nadjamerrek Paddy Compass Namatbara

Dick Murramurra  Nym Djimurrgurr

January Nanganyari  Balirr Balirr

Rurrkula   Nicholas

Wagbara   Madagarlgarl   Yirawala

Curly Bardkadubbu   Mandidja

Djambalula   Guymala

Paddy Captain Jambuwal

Crusoe Kuningbal  Wally Mandarrk  Yuwunyuwun Murrawarr

Bobby Ngainjmirra    Peter Marralwanga

Naiyombolmi  Spider Namirrki  Anchor Wurrkidj

Joshua Wrrongu  George Djaykurrnga

Peter Nabarlambarl  Jimmy Ngainjmirra

 

Oenpelli Bark PaintingThe Oenpelli region includes Crocker Island which is home to some of the greatest figurative aboriginal art. The figures on Crocker Island bark Painting are extremely fluid and full of power and mystery.

The Oenpelli region reaches from the East Alligator River to the liverpool Rivers and includes the Coboug Peninsula and Crocker Island and Gouldburn Islands.

Forest plaines which flood in the wet season border the rivers and lagoons which teem with fish. The main settlement is Oenpelli Mission which is about 100 kilometres from the coast near the alligator River. Although as a cattle station it dates back to 1906 it first became the site of a church mission society in 1925. Nowadays aboriginal life centres on the mission station, where cattle are raised and crops are grown.

The Aboriginals of Oenpelli are organised into tribes rather than the smaller clans. Clans commonly trace matrilineal descent. Among them are the Gunwinggu and the Maung. In the Western region occurs the rocky escarpment of the Arnhem land plateau, fissured by chasms and dotted with caves. Evidence of human occupation as long as 20 thousand years ago is reflected in the rock painting. It is one of the oldest living tribal art traditions on earth.

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Wondjina Painting Treasure of the Kimberleys

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Wondjina bark Painting

Wondjina Painting

Wondjina Painting is an Traditional Artform of the Kimberley in Western Australia. It is a tradition that is at least a couple of thousand years old and Wandjina painting was traditionally done as Rock art by initiated Aboriginal men of the Worrorra, Wunambal, and Ngarinyin people.

Wondjina  are the creator beings of the Dreaming. They made the world and all that it contains. They are found in many rock art sites in rock shelters throughout the Kimberley. In aboriginal tradition the actual Wondjina beings themselves became the wondjina painting and these Wondjina painting are repainted so the power of the beings is not lost.

 

If you have a Wondjina painting  on Bark Canvass or composite board or even cardboard to sell please contact me. If you just want to know what your Wondjina painting is worth to me please feel free to send me a Jpeg because I would love to see it.

Wondjina cave PaintingWondjina rock art paintings are usually painted as full-length, or head and shoulder, figures, either standing or lying horizontally. Their large mouthless faces feature enormous black eyes flanking a beak-like nose. The head is usually surrounded by a band with outward radiating lines. Elaborate head-dresses are both the hair of the Wanjinas and clouds. Long lines coming out from the hair are the feathers which Wanjinas wore and the lightning which they control. Wanjina ceremonies to ensure the timely beginning of the monsoon wet season and sufficient rainfall are held during December and January, following which the rains usually begin (Source: Western Australian Museum).

Wondjina Bark painting by charlie numbelmoore

Aboriginal people of the Kimberley believe that if the Wondjina are offended then they will take their revenge by calling up lightning to strike the offender dead, or the rain to flood the land and drown the people, or the cyclone with its winds to devastate the country. These are the powers which the Wondjinas can use.

 

Since the 1930’s the Kimberley people have been painting Wondjina painting on bark for anthropologists. In the late 1960’s / early 1970’s Wondjina painting were made commercially. initially they were painted on bark and composite board but since the 1980’s were painted on canvass. Wandjina as rock art still abound in the Kimberley region.

 

Major Kimberley Wondjina Painting Aboriginal Artists include

aboriginal bark painting for sale

Charlie Numbulmoore

Jack Karedada

Alec Mingelmanganu

Wattie Karruwara

Mickey Bungkuni

Lily Karedada

Waigin Djanghara

Ignatia Djanghara

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Wanjina Painting : From Rock Art to Canvas

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Wanjina painting by Alec Mingelmanganu

Wanjina Painting

Wanjina Painting is an Traditional Artform of the Kimberley in Western Australia. It is a tradition that is at least a couple of thousand years old and Wandjina painting was traditionally done as Rock art by initiated Aboriginal men of the Worrorra, Wunambal, and Ngarinyin people.

Wanjina  are the creator beings of the Dreaming. They made the world and all that it contains. They are found in many rock art sites in rock shelters throughout the Kimberley. In aboriginal tradition the actual Wanjina beings themselves became the painting and these Wanjina paintings are repainted so the power of the beings is not lost.

 

If you have a Wanjina painting  on Bark Canvass or composite board or even cardboard to sell please contact me. If you just want to know what your Wanjina painting is worth to me please feel free to send me a Jpeg because I would love to see it.

Wanjina paintings on a cave wallWanjina rock art paintings are usually painted as full-length, or head and shoulder, figures, either standing or lying horizontally. Their large mouthless faces feature enormous black eyes flanking a beak-like nose. The head is usually surrounded by a band with outward radiating lines. Elaborate head-dresses are both the hair of the Wanjinas and clouds. Long lines coming out from the hair are the feathers which Wanjinas wore and the lightning which they control. Wanjina ceremonies to ensure the timely beginning of the monsoon wet season and sufficient rainfall are held during December and January, following which the rains usually begin (Source: Western Australian Museum).

Wanjina bark painting by charlie numbelmoore

Aboriginal people of the Kimberley believe that if the Wanjina are offended then they will take their revenge by calling up lightning to strike the offender dead, or the rain to flood the land and drown the people, or the cyclone with its winds to devastate the country. These are the powers which the Wanjinas can use.

 

Since the 1930’s the Kimberley people have been painting wandjina paintings on bark for anthropologists. In the late 1960’s / early 1970’s wandjina paintings were made commercially. initially they were painted on bark and composite board but since the 1980’s were painted on canvass. Wandjina as rock art still abound in the Kimberley region.

 

Major Kimberley Wanjina Painting Aboriginal Artists include

BUNGKUNI Wanjina painting on bark

Charlie Numbulmoore

Jack Karedada

Alec Mingelmanganu

Wattie Karruwara

Mickey Bungkuni

Lily Karedada

Waigin Djanghara

Ignatia Djanghara

 

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Namarrkon : Painters of the Lightning Spirit

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Namarrkon spirit on bark painting

Namarrkon
The Lightning Spirit

Namarrkon is the lightning spirit, the source of the fierce tropical storms in Western Arnhem Land during the wet season. During the dry season he lives in a billabong not far from Numbuwah, a sacred rock in Western Arnhem Land. He only ventures out occasionally to hunt for food around his lagoon. In the wet season Namarrkon lives among the storm clouds. He  sits in the clouds looking down and watching the people below. This is the time he gets angry and creates flashes of lightning, loud thunder and then torrential rain. From late October his thunder signals bush food is ready to harvest. This is the start of the ‘build-up’ season before the proper rains come.

 

 

 

DJAMBULULA depiction of Namarrkon spirit Namarrkon’s presence gets stronger through the wet season. In January and February Namarrkon strikes trees and splits them with his axes – causing lightening. His presence and hence the monsoon season subsides in early March.
Namarrkon’s body is shaped like a praying-mantis. He makes lightning flashes with lightning rods that go around his body from his ears to his genitals. In this painting Namarrkon’s power to light up the sky is expressed by the wild illuminated face of the figure, energetic hatching, arched elbows, flexed hands and the genitals and legs which extend and connect to his ears. No one ventures near this lagoon or touches the bush food near Namarrkon’s camp. He therefore remains undisturbed and happy, and only growls in his ‘thunder voice’ if someone comes too close. Namarrkon is honoured in song and dance

As described by George Merwulunulu Djaygurrnga (c.1930–c.1987) Kunwinjku people Gunbalanya (Oenpelli), Western Arnhem Land

Namarrkon Artists

Several Aboriginal Artists have depicted the lightning spirit including

DJAMBULULA

MICK KUBARRKU

MIDJAU MIDJAU

DICK MURRAMURRA

LOFTY NADJAMERREK

NYM DJIMURRGURR

GEORGE DJAYKURRNGA

JOHN MAWURNDJURL

JIMMI NGAINJMIRRA

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Tiwi Bark Paintings and Tiwi Sculpture

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Tiwi Bark Paintings

Tiwi Bark Paintings

Tiwi Bark Paintings are usually rendered in an abstract often geometric style whose meaning is known only to the Artist. Backgrounds tend to be filled in with lines, crosshatching or dots. Strippling is also common and done with a tool unique to the area. Bark painting was done traditionally on bark bags and then later on square pieces of bark.

The Tiwi are best known for their painted sculptures. They make both pukamani burial poles Tutini and painted figurative sculptures

Since the turn of the twentieth century, the Tiwi have had regular contact with the outside world. They have maintained and adapted many of their customary  practices. The most important is the performance of their main ceremonies, the Pukumani and the Kulama.

Tiwi Bark Paintings

I Buy Tiwi Bark Painting and Tiwi Sculpture and if you have one to sell I would love to see it. If you have an Tiw Bark Painting or Sculpture and just want to know what it is worth please feel free to send me a jpeg.

Tiwi sculptures originally were very small and left next to the grave. It was believed that the spirit of the deceased would mistake the sculpture for a relative and haunt the sculpture rather than the sculptures owner. Bark painting was originally done on bags but was later done on square pieces of bark. The designs on the bark are often those found on body painting and have  spiritual significance.

Tiwi Bark Paintings and Sculpture Artists

 

Tiwi Bark Paintings Cardo Kerinauia | Harry Carpenter (Mani Luki)

Joe Black Wandirjarwi Timiri

Enraeld Djulabinyanna | Laurie Nelson Mungatopi

Ali Mungatopi

Stanislaus Puruntatameri |Jack Yarunga

Kitty Kantilla | Mick Aruni

Deaf Tommy Mungatopi | Declan Apuatimi

 

The Kulama was once primarily an initiation ceremony for both men and women. Today its main function is promoting health and the regeneration of life.

Tiwi Bark PaintingsThe Pukumani mortuary ceremony involved a series of performances over a period of time after a person’s death. It concluded with the nitipurruwawurrini taka (the cutting of the burial pole tree), the yiloti (final rituals) and the final tutini pukumani (erection of the poles) around the gravesite. All Tiwi are still expected to participate in these ceremonies, to sing, dance and to carve a tutini (Pukumani pole) if commissioned by the deceased’s relatives. These tutini funeral poles are one of the best known Tiwi objects, said to represent the body of the deceased or one of the ancestral beings associated with the mortuary ritual, such as Purukupali. Other distinctive items customarily made for the Pukumani ceremony included tunga (large decorated bark baskets), body ornaments such as the pamatini headdresses and armbands, and jukwaliti (elaborate and finely carved barbed spears). Artists decorate these surfaces with symbolic patterns of kurluwukari (circles), pwanga (dots) and marlipinyini (lines), arranged in varying compositions with the occasional incorporation of figurative motifs. These decorations are called jilamara, which literally means colour or paint, though the term is now applied generally to describe all designs  particularly those used for body painting and tutini decoration.

Book Tiwi Art History Culture

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Port Keats Bark Painting and Artists

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Port Keats Bark Painting

Port Keats Bark Painting

Early Port Keats bark painting are almost always on oval shaped pieces of bark.  The painting includes many designs similar to churinga including concentric circles curved lines intertwining spiral and animal or bird tracks. The backgrounds are a solid colour most usually brown. Port Keats bark paintings tend to be small and do not have cross hatching.

The aboriginals in Port Keats believe they migrated from the deserts of Central Australia during a period of prolonged drought.  Many of their customs are similar to those of the Aranda and other central tribes. Culturally significant items such as churinga were brought with people when they migrated and formed the basis for designs found on Port Keats bark paintings.

Later Port Keats Bark Paintings incorporate design elements from other Arnhem Land areas and some are on square barks.  Early barks with strong Churinga like designs and Barks with well known artists tend to be more valued.

There are only a few well known early bark painters from Port Keats and this is because earlier artists would have been engraving designs onto wood. It was missionaries that encouraged artists to paint on bark, as they could see it was a way for the locals to make some income. Earlier barks tend to only have abstract designs on oval barks. Later designs have less abstract designs on squarer barks.

Port Keats Bark Painting Artists

 

Ceremonial ground with fishNym Bunduk

Charlie Brinken

Indji

Charlie Mardigan

Charlie Rock Ngumbe

Bobyin Nongah

Djinu Tjimari

Port Keats is situated in the North west portion of Arnhem Land between the Fitzmaurice and Daly rivers. The region is fertile, well watered and abundant in wildlife. It remained relatively isolated until the 1960’s. The Murinbata is one of the largest and most dominant tribes in the area. There is a mission station from which most of port Keats bark paintings have been collected.

Port Keats Painting in the National Gallery of Australia

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Groote Eylandt Bark Painting and Artists

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Groote Eylandt Bark Painting most often show a solid black or, less frequently a brown background. On this background is a primary figure presented with a strong white outline. Dots, dashes and strippling are typically used to fill in the figures. Crosshatching is is rare. One or a few figures are painted , generally to represent totemic animals, a person or incident from a local myth.  Groote Eylandt Bark Paintings are normally quite small in comparison to other areas often being less than 60 cm in length. Carved and painted message sticks  and painted sawfish bills are also made in the  Groote Eylandt area.

The artists of Groote Eylandt Bark Paintings are often not recorded and as a result there are a large quantity by unknown artists. For every bark with a know artist there will be  half a dozen by unknown artists.

 

I Buy Groote Eylandt Bark Painting and if you have one to sell I would love to see it. If you have an Groote Eylandt Bark Painting and just want to know what it is worth please feel free to contact me.

Groote Eylandt Bark Paintings Artists include:

Groote Eylandt Bark PaintingAmagula Thomas

Nandabitta

Jabarrgwa Kneepad Warrabadalumba 

Nangabarra

Mimikamara

Maminyamandja

 

The Groote Eylandt region is composed of island in the Gulf of Carpenteria off the Arnhem Land coast.. Groote Eylandt the largest island lies 50 kilometres off the coast of the mainland, with the considerably smaller islands of of Bickerton and Chasm inbetween. Trepang , plentiful in the waters surrounding Groote Eylandt have for centuries attracted Makasan traders in the square rigged Prau ships. There was little and only sporadic contact with the mainland until the 1960’s. Groote Eylandt is hilly in the centre, with open woodlands and thick rainforest covering the coastal plain. Twelve clans devided into two moieties inhabited the island. There is a mission settlement at Angurugu and a government station at Umbakumba. Manganese mining and prawning caused strong social and cultural change in the 1970’s.

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Central Arnhem Land Bark Painting

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Central Arnhem Land Bark Painting

Central Arnhem Land Bark Painting

 

The style of of Central Arnhem Land bark painting is a mix between those of the Oenpelli bark painting and Yirrkala bark painting. Central Arnhem land bark painting frequently show a plain background, almost always red ochre in colour.  However backgrounds entirely covered with rarrk crosshatched designs are also found.

The figures depicting the myth are generally filled with red yellow or white crosshatching or with solid colour. Unlike central Australian Aboriginal Art Dots and strippling are infrequently used. Although the figures rarely achieve the lively movement of Oenpelli bark painting they are not completely static either. Within the limits of tradition, they may even achieve a forceful, dramatic quality.

 

I Buy Central Arnhem Land Bark Painting and if you have one to sell I would love to see it. If you have an Central Arnhem Land Bark Painting and just want to know what it is worth please feel free to send me a jpeg.

Central Arnhem Land Bark Painting Artists include:

great example of a central arnhem land bark paintingBunguwuy    Dawidi    Daynganggan

England Bangala    Mick Magani

Paddy Dhatangu

Bob Bilinyarra   Binyinyuwuy

Burrunday   Jimmy Wululu

George Milpurrurru   Johnny Bulun Bulun

Libundja  Djunmal

 

The central Arnhem land or Milingimbi Region extends from the Liverpool to the Woolen Rivers. Founded in 1918 and today a focus of Aboriginal  art, Milingimbi was a mission station of the methodist church (now the the United Church of North Australia). Mainly from the country drained by the Goyder, Blythe and Woolen rivers, the clans here are closely related those of the northeast region. Patrilineal decent is the commonist pattern among the people. Old Makasan camps are found on the coast and south of Milingimbi lies the waterhole of Mirarmina, home of the Rainbow serpent Julunggul.

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X Ray bark Painting From Western Arnhem Land

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X Ray Bark Painting

The style of X Ray bark painting stems directly from a long history of rock painting. This article describes the features and designs found in X Ray Bark Painting and provides links to 32 major X Ray Bark Painting Artists.

Commonly the background of a bark painting from X Ray has been covered by a reddish Ochre that has been rubbed in. Sometimes the scrapped surface may be left the colour it assumed when it was scorched and straightened over a fire. Bark painting from this region were originally done inside shelters made of bark during the wet season or as rock painting.

 

 

 I Buy X Ray bark painting and if you have one to sell I would love to see it. If you have a bark painting and just want to know what it is worth please feel free to send me a jpeg.

 

X Ray bark PaintingThe design typically consists of a single figure or a group of figures. The design is boldly outlined in white and stands out clearly from the background. The figures on a bark Painting can be some of the most dynamic and visually intriguing found in Aboriginal Art.

Though there is very little of background detail, the design is often filled in with crosshatching. These figures are distinguished by their roundness and quality of movement. Most old bark painting form Oenpelli exhibit this x ray technique whereby internal organs – usually of animals fish or pregnant women are depicted. This x-ray style of art is a way Aboriginal Art represent the whole spiritual being on a 2 dimensional surface and not just the beings surface. In some old rock painting it is believed the spirit itself came to rest on the rock and left the depiction of its image. It is also the reason that Oenpelli bark painting are sometimes called X Ray Bark Painting or x-ray aboriginal art.

Representations of attenuated matchstick figures called Mimi spirits are also found primarily in aboriginal art from Oenpelli.

X ray bark Painting Aboriginal Artists include:

X Ray bark Painting by NamatbaraJimmy Midjaw Midjaw  | Mick Kubarkku

Lofty Nadjamerrek | Paddy Compass Namatbara

Dick Murramurra  | Nym Djimurrgurr

January Nanganyari  | Balirr Balirr

Rurrkula   | Nicholas

Wagbara   | Madagarlgarl   | Yirawala

Curly Bardkadubbu | Mandidja

Djambalula | Guymala

Paddy Captain Jambuwal

Crusoe Kuningbal | Wally Mandarrk | Yuwunyuwun Murrawarr

Bobby Ngainjmirra  |  Peter Marralwanga

Naiyombolmi | Spider Namirrki | Anchor Wurrkidj

Joshua Wrrongu | George Djaykurrnga

Peter Nabarlambarl | Jimmy Ngainjmirra

Links to these Oenpelli / x ray bark painters 

very early example of an Oenpelli Bark PaintingThe Oenpelli region includes Crocker Island which is home to some of the greatest figurative aboriginal art. The figures on Crocker Island bark Painting are extremely fluid and full of power and mystery.

The Oenpelli region reaches from the East Alligator River to the liverpool River and includes the Coboug Peninsula and Crocker Island and Gouldburn Islands.

Forest plaines which flood in the wet season border the rivers and lagoons which teem with fish. The main settlement is Oenpelli Mission which is about 100 kilometres from the coast near the alligator River. Although as a cattle station it dates back to 1906 it first became the site of a church mission society in 1925. Nowadays aboriginal life centres on the mission station, where cattle are raised and crops are grown.

The Aboriginals of Oenpelli are organised into tribes rather than the smaller clans. Clans commonly trace matrilineal descent. Among them are the Gunwinggu and the Maung. In the Western region occurs the rocky escarpment of the Arnhem land plateau, fissured by chasms and dotted with caves. Evidence of human occupation as long as 20 thousand years ago is reflected in the rock painting. It is one of the oldest living tribal art traditions on earth.

If this post has been informative please take the time and make the effort to share it on social media. By clicking any of the share buttons below you create a link from your social site to this article. Links are what google uses to calculate what information on the web is useful. By sharing this article you are letting google know you found my article / images of some value. Thanks!

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